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A | Define A at Dictionary.com

In both spoken and written English the choice of a 1 or an 1 is determined by the initial sound of the word that follows. Before a consonant sound, a is used; before a vowel sound, an: a book, a rose; an apple, an opera. Problems arise occasionally when the following word begins with a vowel letter but actually starts with a consonant sound, or vice versa.

A | Definition of A by Merriam-Webster

7 capitalized: the one of the four ABO blood groups characterized by the presence of antigens designated by the letter A and by the presence of antibodies against the antigens present in the B blood group

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Strange Characters in database text: Ã, Ã, ¢, â

This appears to be a UTF-8 encoding issue that may have been caused by a double-UTF8-encoding of the database file contents. This situation could happen due to factors such as the character set that was or was not selected (for instance when a database backup file was created) and the file format and encoding database file was saved with.

If the charset of the tables is the same as it’s content try to use mysql_set_charset(‘UTF8’, $link_identifier) . Note that MySQL uses UTF8 to specify the UTF-8 encoding instead of UTF-8 which is more common. Check my other answer on a similar question too.15This is surely an encoding problem. You have a different encoding in your database and in your website and this fact is the cause of the problem. Also if you ran that command you have to change the records that are already in your tables to convert those character in UTF-8. Update : Based on your last comment, the core of the problem is that you have a database and a data source (the CSV file) which use different encoding. Hence you can convert your database in UTF-8 or, at least, when you get the data that are in the CSV, you have to convert them from UTF-8 to latin1. You can do the convertion following this articles: Convert latin1 to UTF8 http://wordpress.org/support/topic/convert-latin1-to-utf-85This appears to be a UTF-8 encoding issue that may have been caused by a double-UTF8-encoding of the database file contents. This situation could happen due to factors such as the character set that was or was not selected (for instance when a database backup file was created) and the file format and encoding database file was saved with. I have seen these strange UTF-8 characters in the following scenario (the description may not be entirely accurate as I no longer have access to the database in question): As I recall, there the database and tables had a «uft8_general_ci» collation. Backup is made of the database. Backup file is opened on Windows in UNIX file format and with ANSI encoding. Database is restored on a new MySQL server by copy-pasting the contents from the database backup file into phpMyAdmin. Looking into the file contents: Opening the SQL backup file in a text editor shows that the SQL backup file has strange characters such as «sÃ¥». On a side note, you may get different results if opening the same file in another editor. I use TextPad here but opening the same file in SublimeText said «sÃ¥» because SublimeText correctly UTF8-encoded the file — still, this is a bit confusing when you start trying to fix the issue in PHP because you don’t see the right data in SublimeText at first. Anyways, that can be resolved by taking note of which encoding your text editor is using when presenting the file contents. The strange characters are double-encoded UTF-8 characters, so in my case the first «Ãƒ» part equals «Ã» and «Â¥» = «¥» (this is my first «encoding»). THe «Ã¥» characters equals the UTF-8 character for «å» (this is my second encoding). So, the issue is that «false» (UTF8-encoded twice) utf-8 needs to be converted back into «correct» utf-8 (only UTF8-encoded once) . Trying to fix this in PHP turns out to be a bit challenging: utf8_decode() is not able to process the characters. // Fails silently (as in – nothing is output)
$str = «sÃ¥»;

$str = utf8_decode($str);
printf(«\n%s», $str);

$str = utf8_decode($str);
printf(«\n%s», $str);
iconv() fails with «Notice: iconv(): Detected an illegal character in input string». echo iconv(«UTF-8», «ISO-8859-1», «sÃ¥»);
Another fine and possible solution fails silently too in this scenario $str = «sÃ¥»;
echo html_entity_decode(htmlentities($str, ENT_QUOTES, ‘UTF-8’), ENT_QUOTES , ‘ISO-8859-15’);
mb_convert_encoding() silently: # $str = «sÃ¥»;
echo mb_convert_encoding($str, ‘ISO-8859-15’, ‘UTF-8’);
// (No output)
Trying to fix the encoding in MySQL by converting the MySQL database characterset and collation to UTF-8 was unsuccessfully: ALTER DATABASE myDatabase CHARACTER SET utf8 COLLATE utf8_unicode_ci;
I see a couple of ways to resolve this issue. The first is to make a backup with correct encoding (the encoding needs to match the actual database and table encoding). You can verify the encoding by simply opening the resulting SQL file in a text editor. The other is to replace double-UTF8-encoded characters with single-UTF8-encoded characters. This can be done manually in a text editor. To assist in this process, you can manually pick incorrect characters from Try UTF-8 Encoding Debugging Chart (it may be a matter of replacing 5-10 errors). Finally, a script can assist in the process: $str = «sÃ¥»;
// The two arrays can also be generated by double-encoding values in the first array and single-encoding values in the second array.
$str = str_replace([«Ãƒ»,»Â¥»], [«Ã»,»¥»], $str);
$str = utf8_decode($str);
echo $str;
// Output: «så» (correct)2
Apply these two things. You need to set the character set of your database to be utf8 . You need to call the mysql_set_charset(‘utf8’) in the file where you made the connection with the database and right after the selection of database like mysql_select_db use the mysql_set_charset . That will allow you to add and retrieve data properly in whatever the language.2The error usually gets introduced while creation of CSV. Try using Linux for saving the CSV as a TextCSV. Libre Office in Ubuntu can enforce the encoding to be UTF-8, worked for me.
I wasted a lot of time trying this on Mac OS. Linux is the key. I’ve tested on Ubuntu. Good Luck1
I encountered today quite a similar problem : mysqldump dumped my utf-8 base encoding utf-8 diacritic characters as two latin1 characters, although the file itself is regular utf8. For example : «é» was encoded as two characters «Ã©». These two characters correspond to the utf8 two bytes encoding of the letter but it should be interpreted as a single character. To solve the problem and correctly import the database on another server, I had to convert the file using the ftfy (stands for «Fixes Text For You). ( https://github.com/LuminosoInsight/python-ftfy ) python library. The library does exactly what I expect : transform bad encoded utf-8 to correctly encoded utf-8. For example : This latin1 combination «Ã©» is turned into an «é». ftfy comes with a command line script but it transforms the file so it can not be imported back into mysql. I wrote a python3 script to do the trick : #!/usr/bin/python3
# coding: utf-8

import ftfy

# Set input_file
input_file = open(‘mysql.utf8.bad.dump’, ‘r’, encoding=»utf-8″)
# Set output file
output_file = open (‘mysql.utf8.good.dump’, ‘w’)

# Create fixed output stream
stream = ftfy.fix_file(

# Save stream to output file
stream_iterator = iter(stream)
while stream_iterator:
line = next(stream_iterator)
except StopIteration:

Finding duplicate values in a SQL table – Stack Overflow
vb.net – HTML encoding issues

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A- | Define A- at Dictionary.com

an old point-action prefix, not referring to an act as a whole, but only to the beginning or end: She arose (rose up). They abided by their beliefs (remained faithful to the end).

HTML a tag – W3Schools

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